5.4.3 Fundamental Model Parameters

`real teff`

:

The effective temperature is one of the basic model parameters and is specified e.g. with`real teff f=F13.3 b=4 n='Effective Temperature' u=K`

3500.0`teff`

itself. In fact,`teff`

is only used to control material properties at the outer boundary. Its value should be close to the expected effective temperature of the model.`character grav_mode`

:

Gravity is another characteristic of a stellar atmosphere. The type (or geometry) of the external gravity field has to be specified e.g. with`character grav_mode f=A80 b=80 n='Type of gravity field' &`

c0='constant/central'

central`constant`

: In the standard ``solar'' case the constant gravity specified with`real grav`

is directed downward in x3 direction.`localboxtide`

: This activates a simple model for the action of a tidal wave on convection in a local box model. It adds to the case of`constant`

gravity a potential which is harmonic in space and time according to

(96) `C_test`

parameters according:

= `C_test1`

(amplitude of potential variations)= `C_test2`

(horizontal wavenumber)= `C_test3`

(frequency)

Boundary conditions: in order to be compatible with periodic lateral boundaries should be an integer multiple of times the inverse lateral box size.`central`

: For the ``supergiant'' case a central potential is assumed with an origin at x=0. The stellar mass as well as inner and outer smoothing radius have to be specified.

`real grav`

:

In the case of a constant gravity the amount of the acceleration has to specified with`real grav f=E15.8 b=4 n='Gravity' u=cm/s^2`

27500.0`real mass_star`

:

In the case of a central the mass (in cgs units) of the star has to be specified with`real mass_star f=E15.8 b=4 n='Stellar Mass' u=g`

9.94500e+33`real r0_grav`

:

To avoid the central singularity in a 1/r potential it is smoothed in the center to give a central potential of 1/`r0_grav`

, specified with`real r0_grav f=E15.8 b=4 n='Inner Smoothing Radius' u=cm`

9.45833e+12`real r1_grav`

:

The density in an atmosphere in hydrostatic equilibrium can decline to very low values. To artificial enlarge the pressure (and density) scale height in the outer layers of the star (the corners of the box) the gravity can be reduced by defining the potential at infinity to be 1/`r1_grav`

, specified with`real r1_grav f=E15.8 b=4 n='Outer Smoothing Radius' u=cm &`

c0='0.0: Not used'

11.35000e+13`real r0_grav`

is relevant). But a value somewhat larger than the remotest corner of the box effectively cancels this artificial smoothing in the outer layers without changing the formula for the potential.`real r2_grav`

:

Using`real r2_grav`

instead of`real r1_grav`

means that a potential function more appropriate for a polytropic stellar interior model is used. It can be set, e.g. with`real r2_grav f=E15.8 b=4 n='Outer Smoothing Radius' u=cm &`

c0='0.0: Not used'

11.35000e+13`real r1_grav`

is used. This parameter is similar to`real r1_grav`

, i.e., it enlarges the pressure scale hight in the outer layers but does not change the smoothing formula in the center. This parameter is only effective if`real r1_grav`

is set to zero.`real r1_rad`

:

For a ``Star-in-a-Box'' and particularly when only ``simple'' ray directions are allowed in the radiation transport step the temperature in the outer corners of the box tends to become very small. To artificially increase the effect of radiative heating the parameter`real r1_rad`

can specify a radius beyond which only positive contributions of the radiative energy transport to the energy budget are taken into account. This ruins the conservativity of the code in these layers and should be applied only in very remote corners which are then considered only as sort of extended boundary region but not as part of the ``real'' model. The parameter can be specified e.g. with`real r1_rad f=E15.8 b=4 n='Outer radiation transport radius' u=cm &`

c0='0.0: Not used'

8.00000e+13`0.0`

(default) or below deactivates this feature.`real r0_core`

:

To insert energy in a sphere different with a radius other than`r0_grav`

, the heating radius`r0_core`

can be specified separately, e.g. with`real r0_core f=E15.8 b=4 n='Core Radius' u=cm`

9.45833e+12`r0_grav`

is used as the radius of the core.`character centrifugal_force`

:

Usually, a centrifugal force is applied if`nu_rotation`

0. To switch it off even for non-zero rotation rate, the parameter`centrifugal_force`

can be used, e.g. by setting`character centrifugal_force f=A80 b=80 n='Switch on/off the centrifugal force' &`

c0='on: default, off: no centrifugal force, even for non-zero nu_rotation'

off`on`

: This is the default and can be set even for non-rotating objects.`off`

: This skips the application of the centrifugal force in case of a non-zero rotation rate. In this case, only the Coriolis force is applied.

`real nu_rotation`

:

To transform onto a coordinate system rotation around the x3 axis, a rotation rate can be specified with e.g.`real nu_rotation f=E15.8 b=4 n='Rotation frequency' u=1/s`

0.0`centrifugal_force`

is set to`off`

. In addition, a Coriolis force are applied during the hydrodynamics step.`real ar_RotationAxis`

:

The radii of the dust grains are specified with e.g.`real ar_rotationaxis f=E10.4 b=4 p=1 d=(1:3) n='Rotation axis' u=1`

1.0

0.0

0.0`(0.0,0.0,1.0)`

.